Aircrafts / Helicopters / United States / AH-1 Cobra

Number of Engines 3
Length (m) 13.87
Height (m) 4.11
Top Speed (km/h) 314
Climb Rate (m/min) 587
Ceiling (m) 4 495
Max. Takeoff Weight (kg) 6 960
Range (km) 577
Crew 2
Date Deployed 1977
Unit Cost ($) N/A
Overview Variants

A four bladed version of the AH-1W, designated the AH-1Z, is also under development; the addition of the extra blades dramatically improves the performance envelope of the AH-1W. Currently, the AH-1W is being retrofitted with a Kollsman-manufactured Night Targeting System (NTS). The aircraft is also undergoing a cockpit reconfiguration to allow for easier copilot/gunner access to the NTS. The upgrade of the AH-1W, including the new cockpit, is referred to as the Four Bladed AH-1W (4BW) and the upgrade of the UH-1N drive train is referred to as the Four Bladed UH-1N (4BN). Collectively, the 4BN/4BW effort constitutes the USMC H-1 Upgrades Program.

The Marine Corps plans to upgrade 180 of the AH-1W gunships to the new AH-1Z standard. The first flight is expected in October 2000, to be followed by low-rate initial production beginning in February 2002, with deliveries running from 2004 through 2013.

This program combines upgrades of two USMC H-1 aircraft: the AH-1W Cobra attack helicopter and the UH-1N light utility helicopter. The common element of the two will be identical twin engines and drive trains, including a new four-bladed rotor previously developed but not fielded. In addition, the AH-1 attack helicopter will gain a new integrated cockpit and night targeting system. The upgrade will extend the life of the H-1 two models well into the 21st century. The AH-1 will contribute to precision engagement and full-dimensional protection; the UH-1 will provide support to focused logistics.

Under the 4BW/4BN fully integrated cockpits will be phased into the development after initial work on the drive system is underway. Initial work will consist of simultaneous design efforts for the 4BW and 4BN. Major modifications include: a new rotor system with semi-automatic bladefold of the new composite rotor system, a new performance matched transmission, a new 4-bladed tail rotor and drive system, a more effective stabilizer, upgraded landing gear, tail pylon structural modifications and common cockpits. This remanufacture will add 10,000 flight hours to 4BW/4BN airframes. The 4BW will increase aircraft maneuverability, speed, and payload (ordnance) capability. The fully integrated cockpits will reduce operator workload and improve situational awareness, thus increasing safety. It will provide growth potential for future weapon systems and avionics, which would increase mission effectiveness and survivability. As discrete systems have previously been added to both aircraft, pilot workload has progressively worsened. The cockpits will include integration of on-board mission planning, communications, digital fire control, self navigation, night targeting, and weapons systems in nearly identical crew stations reducing training requirements. The 4BN effort will incorporate the 4BW rotor system into the UH-1N aircraft, as well as a fully integrated cockpit common with the 4BW, maximizing commonality between the two aircraft and providing needed improvements in crew and passenger survivability, payload, power available, endurance, range, airspeed, maneuverability and supportability.

The 4BN/4BW program was instituted in the summer of 1996 by combining several lesser upgrades planned but not executed by the Marine Corps. Prior to entry into EMD in September, 1996, DOT&E approved the program's alternative LFT&E plan and USD(A&T) approved a waiver from full-up, system-level LFT&E. The AH-1W will be tested full-up, system-level; the UH-1N received a waiver from full-up, system-level testing. The H-1 Upgrade ORDs require that both helicopters be tolerant to impacts by 12.7mm rounds and have crashworthy enhancements. Additionally, the drive components of the AH-1W should be tolerant to 23mm rounds.

The H-1 Upgrade has the most comprehensive and realistic aircraft LFT&E program approved to date. The program will include full-up, system-level testing of an AH-1W and testing of all but the tail (which is common to both aircraft) of the UH-1N. It will explore in detail various potential kill mechanisms related to the expected threat. The LFT&E program is integrated fully into the systems engineering effort and should yield a reasonable opportunity to incorporate improvements if deficiencies are found.

Most older Cobra variants still in operation have been upgraded to the AH-1F standard. Also produced in Romania and Japan under license from Bell Textron in the U.S.

• AH-1G: Initial production model in 1966
• AH-1S: Upgraded 1960s produced aircraft in late 1980s to the standard TOW carry-ing version.
• AH-1P: A set of AH-1S aircraft fitted with composite rotors, flat plate glass cockpits, and NVG capabilities.
• AH-1E: A set of AH-1S aircraft upgraded with the Enhanced Cobra Armament System incorporating the universal turret, 20-mm gun, automatic compensation for off-axis gun firing, and weapon management system.
• AH-1F: Current standard Cobra. Also referred to as the “Modernized Cobra”. Incorporated all past upgrades.

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